No, that would not have maxed out Attack and Speed, and it is impossible for that particular Charmander to have maximum stats in Attack and Speed. For these reasons (these are probably going to confuse you so don't worry if they do!):
- Each Vitamin only increases EVs in the stat by 10. So you'd have 100/252 in Attack and Speed after using 10 of each of them.
- The characteristic ("Likes to run" in this case) does not guarantee that the stat it indicates has 31 IVs, in only guarantees it is the highest out of all the Pokemon's other stats (or at least tied for highest). The characteristic also indicate the IV's value. "Likes to run" indicates Speed, and means that Charmander's Speed IVs are 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30 (according to Serebii). Since the highest possible IV value is 30, it is guaranteed that your Charmander cannot have maximum Speed IVs. This also means that it cannot have maximum Attack, because if it did have max Attack IVs, its characteristic would have been "Likes to thrash about".
- You cannot have the highest possible stat in two stats, because of how Natures work. It only gives the 10% increase to one stat (same with the decrease). Since it has Adamant, it cannot have the highest possible Speed, but it could have the highest Attack. However, as I stated before, its IVs won't allow this.
As for the Super Training question, the answer is technically no. They both increase EVs, but the difference is that Vitamins only work for the first hundred IVs, whereas Super Training will work right until it caps at 252. If Vitamins worked until the end like Super Training does, then the answer would be yes.
More info Characteristics (would have linked to Bulbapedia but apparently they're having issues with malware)