No, they don't.
Traded eggs take the same amount of steps to hatch as eggs you got yourself.
If you are trying to be lazy, have the person who is giving you the egg to hatch it before it is traded.
If you are trying to hatch eggs faster, combine Flame Body and a Hatching Power Lv. 3 together, get on your bike, and ride around the Pokemon world.
Hope I helped!