This shows how they do it in generation 5.
Level-This one is self explanatory. The higher your pokemon's level, the stronger the attack.
Attack-This one is also special attack if you're using a special move. If you use a move like swords dance, then those modifications are made beforehand. For instance, if you have a pokemon with 150 attack that uses swords dance, it will go to 300.
Defense-same as attack in that you use special defense for special moves. The number is based on your target's defense.
Base- the Base damage of the attack. For example, Earthquake has a base power of 100.
Modifier is for situational things:
STAB- If your pokemon's move matches its type, it'll be stronger.
type-this is where type matchups come in. If I use a grass move on swampert, it would be for because of his 4X weakness to grass.
critical-If you get a critical hit, then this powers up. This one is luck though.
other-This is for things like helping hand, weather, items, etc.
rand-Every time you attack, a random number ranging from .85 to 1 is selected.