EV- Effort Values: you get them when you battle a certain pokemon for the EVs they give out.You must level up for this to take place. Like the chart that says HP (+2)
Attack (+1) etc.
IV- Individual Values: Come with the pokemon you breed/catch. The amount your pokemon has is completely random, and they determine which stat will get more EVs after level up.
STAB- Same Type Attack Bonus. Say your pokemon is a Grass type, if you have a Grass type move with that pokemon, the power becomes higher