Well, like you said, there is Machoke > Machamp, Haunter > Gengar, and Kadabra > Alakazam, but there are more.
Graveler > Golem
Clamperl (holding Deepseatooth) > Huntail
Clamperl (holding Deepseascale) > Gorebyss
Porygon(holding an item I forget the name of) > Porygon2
Porygon2 (holding Dubious Disk) > Porygon-Z
Rhydon (holding Protector) > Rhyperior
Electabuzz (holding Electrizer) > Electrove
Magmar (holding Magmarizer) > Magmortar
Gurdurr > Conkeldurr
There are still more I can't name of the top of my head. You know, if you go to Evolution Chains on this website you can use the Filter Evolution By Trading button to get all of them.