There is actually a formula to work out whether or not you will be able to get away or not. http://bulbapedia.bulbagarden.net/wiki/Escape
- A is the current Speed of the player's active Pokémon,
- B is the opposing Pokémon's Speed divided by 4, mod 256, and
- C is the number of times the player has tried to escape during the battle (counting the current attempt).
So according to that formula, that level 100 was slow compared to those Tranquill, and you were out of luck. So to answer the question, it is possible for ANY Pokemon to prevent your escape.