Trade-induced evolution cannot be canceled unless the Pokémon holds an Everstone. In Generation IV onwards, however, the Everstone fails to prevent a traded Kadabra from evolving into Alakazam
Based on that fact, I would say no, you can't stop trade evolutions without everstone
No. I just dug out my Blue, Yellow, game link cable, and two GBAs.
I traded a Kadabra from Yellow to Blue, and pressed the B button a dozen times, but it did not stop Kadabra from evolving. The only way to trade Kadabra in Gen 1 without evolving it would be by storing it on Stadium in one game and removing it on the other game
In Gen 1, the only way to stop a Pokemon from evolving was by pressing B. However, evolution stones and trading trumped pressing the B button
In Gen 2, the Everstone apparently stops those Pokemon from evolving as well. Gen 3 had a weird bug with the Everstone, where trading still evolved the Pokemon, but deleted the held item in that specific case. In Gen 4 and later, it appears that trading and stones are not blocked by the Everstone
Someone actually tried it out. The source is in the link I mentioned in the comments