It was because you got knocked out by a status move (Leech Seed, which damages indirectly)
Destiny Bond only activates when the opponent knocks you out with either a Physical or Special move (for example, Psychic, which the Exeggutor had). They knocked you out with Leech Seed, which is a Status move and damages you indirectly, so Destiny Bond didn't activate.
Also, from the Bulbapedia Destiny Bond page:
Destiny Bond does not activate from indirect damage such as weather damage, damage from Leech Seed, and Future Sight. Destiny Bond also bypasses Focus Sash, Sturdy, and Magic Guard.
That's all, hope it helped!