The existing technology for the purification of diffusion juice and its hardware design has not fundamentally changed over the past four decades. The lack of the necessary theoretical developments and experimental data hinders the development of existing and the development of new technological processes. Therefore, the main direction of improving the purification efficiency of juices of sugar beet production is the disclosure of its unused reserves and their implementation in practice. The scientific problem of choosing the rational direction for improving the technology of juice purification, which ensures the production of consumer granulated sugar in the face of changes in a wide range of quality of raw materials, is relevant and has important economic importance, especially in the context of the transition of beet sugar factories to a market economy. One way to solve it is to make fuller use of the adsorption capacity of calcium carbonate particles while increasing the filtration properties of saturation sediments. Therefore, the study investigates the effect of cavitation effects – vapor condensation and hydrodynamic processing of diffusion juice on the processes of purification of diffusion juice, juices of preliminary defecation, first and second saturations. The analysis of the influence of various effects of cavitation processing of juices from the point of view of improving the purification efficiency, the optimal place of the purification process in the technological scheme of production is established.
Classical methods of intensifying the processes of calccarbon dioxide purification of diffusion juice of sugar beet production by changing the temperature, alkalinity, or duration of individual stages do not provide an increase in the purification efficiency. In particular, analyzing the conditions of the processes at the previous defecation is found (
There is also information about the application of the method of blowing steam into the juice stream to intensify the purification and sedimentation processes (
But in the mentioned works (especially on the injection of water vapor), the physical essence of the effects and the mechanisms of their action on the physicochemical transformations of noncurved diffusion juice is not considered, but only the positive consequences taking place, in this case, are given. In addition, the literature does not contain data comparing the effects of hydrodynamic (HD) or vapor condensation (VC) cavitation processing of juices in terms of improving the purification efficiency and research to establish the optimal place in the technological scheme of purification and has become the subject of our research.
The scientific hypothesis lies in the rational direction of the intensification of the technology for the purification of beet sugar juices. It is assumed that an increase in the quality and yield of sugar is possible due to the collapse of steam bubbles during the vapor condensation and hydrodynamic cavitation. The latter accelerate the main reactions at the stages of juice purification, leading to an increase in the overall purification effect.
The objects of research are diffuse juice, juice of preliminary defecation, juice of the first and second saturation. Diffuse juice is processed in a hydrodynamic cavitation installation under optimal conditions. Samples of diffusion juice according to standard methods (
For preliminary defecation juice and juice of the first saturation, the sedimentation rate and juice sedimentation volume after settling are determined after 20 minutes; for the second saturation juice, the content of calcium salts in percent by weight of the juice and its purity are determined.
It is known that the shockwave effect of a hydrodynamic cavitation field on the medium is processed, determined by the stage of cavitation (
To determine the sedimentation rate, a 2liter cylinder was used, which was used to determine the height of the clarified suspension and the sedimentation rate after 5 minutes. To determine the purity of the juice it is necessary: to divide the sucrose content by the dry matter content. The dry matter content was determined using a URL1 refractometer (supplier company PrimaRia, Kiev, Ukraine), and the sucrose content was determined using a SU4 saccharometer (supplier company PrimaRia, Kiev, Ukraine).
Processing of the medium in the working area of the hydrodynamic cavitation installation occurs under the influence of cavitation bubbles, splashing. Therefore, the number and size of the formed cavitation bubbles are the determining factors of the technological efficiency of the cavitation treatment. In turn, the structure of the field of cavitation bubbles depends on the hydrodynamic parameters of the process, the main of which are the flow rate in the gap between the cavitator and the wall of the working section of the cavitation device and the stage of cavitation λ (
Mathematical and statistical processing of experimental data was carried out in determining the criteria of Cochran's C test, Fisher and Student's
In
The effect of the cavitation stage on the technological parameters of preliminary defecation juice.
As can be seen from Figure
Comparative characteristics of diffusion juice samples, the purifications of which are carried out according to the standard scheme and according to the scheme with preliminary processing of diffusion juice in a hydrodynamic cavitation device, are given in Table
Technological indicators of juices at diffusion juice purification according to a standard scheme and using the effects of HD cavitation.
Purification scheme  Juice  



Diffuse  Preliminary defecation  First saturation  Second saturation  


Purity, %  S_{5}, cm.min^{1}  V_{20}, %  S_{5}, cm.min^{1}  V_{20}, %  Salts Ca^{2+}, % CaO  Purity,%  


86.5  3.2  33  3.3  30  0.04  90.3  
86.3  3.0  35  3.1  31  0.036  90.5  
86.7  3.3  32  3.3  31  0.04  90.6  
86.5  3.2  33.3  3.2  30.7  0.039  90.9  
86.5  3.7  32  3.9  25  0.021  91.3  
86.3  3.9  30  4.1  26  0.020  91.5  
86.7  4.0  30  4.1  24  0.021  91.5  
86.5  3.9  29.0  4.0  25.0  0.021  91.6 
Note: * all studies were performed in 5 replicates, the deviation of which did not exceed 3%.
As can be seen from the experimental data, cavitation processing of diffusion juice intensifies the processes of coagulation of substances of a colloidal dispersion of diffusion juice at the previous defecation and adsorption of noncurvatures at the stages of the first and second saturation, as evidenced, in particular, by an increase in the purity of purified juice by 0.7%. The authors of (
To determine in the technological scheme, the most appropriate place for the hydrodynamic cavitation processing of sugar production juices, let’s carry out studies in which juices: diffuse, preliminary defecation, and main defecation are cleared in the hydrodynamic cavitation installation. Samples of juices after a single treatment from the cavitation stage λ = 2.3 in laboratory conditions are brought to the juice of the first saturation and S_{5} and V_{20} re determined in them. Figure
Technological indicators of the juice of the first saturation in the processing of juices of the main unit
In this case, the deposition rate during the processing of diffusion juice in a hydrodynamic cavitation device compared with the conventional method increases by 19.4%, and the sediment volume decreases by 14%. When processing juices of preliminary and main defecation, the technological properties of the juice of the first saturation significantly (сonfidence probability
deteriorate in comparison with the usual purification method. Similar results were obtained in studies presented in the works of the following authors (
Processing in the installation of juices of preliminary and main bowel movements leads to a slight deterioration in the indicators of the juice of the first saturation – a decrease in the sedimentation rate of juice by 6 and 12.5%, respectively, and sediment volume by 7 and 20.7% compared with the usual method of juice purification. This indicates that during the processing of juices of preliminary and main defecation, the sediment particles formed at the stage of preliminary defecation are destroyed, followed by hydration of the substances of colloidal dispersion (SCD) particles that are adsorbed on it. Due to this, the deposition rate decreases, and the volume of juice sediment after settling increases. Similar data were obtained in work (
The authors found improvements in the physicochemical parameters of the juices of the first and second saturation.
Such changes are explained by the fact that the activity of Ca^{2+} ions is increased, which are released from the clathrate structure of the hexo aqua complex, which interacts more fully with nonsugars juice. However, the sedimentation rate of the juice of the first saturation decreases by 10%, and the filtration coefficient increases.
From an analysis of laboratory studies, it can be assumed that the cavitation treatment of diffusion juice in a hydrodynamic cavitation device is the first step in the conversion of particles of substances of a colloidal dispersion of juice. After a certain period of time, they interact with each other, or with a chemical reagent, if any, which will contribute to the formation of a compact, lowhydrated coagulate precipitate during the previous defecation, which is resistant to peptization under conditions of basic defecation. As a result, the filtration properties of juice and carbonation will improve and the effect of the juice of I purification as a whole will increase.
To establish an analogy of the effect of the studied effects on the purification of diffusion juice in cavitation devices, parallel experiments are conducted in which the diffuse juice after treatment in hydrodynamic and vapor condensation cavitation devices is cleaned according to the following scheme: optimal previous defecation at a temperature of 55 – 65 °C, which is fed 0.25 – 0.3% CaO at pH_{20} 10.8 – 11.2, heating to a temperature of 80 – 85 °C, the main defecation with the addition of 2.5% CaO, the first saturation to pH_{20} 10.8 – 11.2, sediment separation of the juice of first second saturation by decantation followed by filtration; second saturation; filtering the juice of the second saturation.
Comparative values of juices according to the standard scheme and with cavitation processing of diffusion juice are given in Table
Comparative characteristics of technological indicators of juices at diffusion juice purification according to a standard scheme and using the effects of HD and VC cavitation.
Purification scheme  Juice  



Diffuse  Preliminary defecation  First saturation  Second saturation  


∆t, °C  Purity, %  S_{5}, cm.min^{1}  V_{20}, %  S_{5}, cm.min^{1}  V_{20}, %  Salts Ca^{2+}, % CaO  Purity, %  


–  86.5  3.2  33  3.3  30  0.04  90.3  
–  86.3  3.0  35  3.1  31  0.036  90.5  
–  86.7  3.3  32  3,3  31  0.04  90.6  
–  86.5  3.2  33.3  3.2  30.7  0.039  90.9  
4  86.5  3.5  29  3.7  26  0.025  91.1  
5  86.3  3.7  30  3.9  27  0.021  91.3  
4  86.7  3.8  28  4.1  25  0.027  91.0  
4.3  86.5  3.7  29.0  3.9  26.0  0.028  91.4  
–  86.5  3.7  32  3.9  25  0.021  91.3  
–  86.3  3.9  30  4.1  26  0.020  91.5  
–  86.7  4.0  30  4.1  24  0.021  91.5  
–  86.5  3.9  29.0  4.0  25.0  0.021  91.6 
Note: *all studies were performed in 5 replicates, the deviation of which did not exceed 3%.
According to research results, when processing diffusion juice in cavitation devices, the performance of juices is improved compared to the usual purification method. So, the sedimentation rate of preliminary defecation juice after processing diffusion juice in a vapor condensation cavitation device increases by 15.6%, and in a hydrodynamic cavitation device by 21.8%, the volume of juice sediment decreases in both cases by 12.9%. A similar dependence is observed in the juice of the first saturation: the sedimentation rate of the juice sediment processed in the vapor condensation cavitation device increases accordingly by 21.8%, in the hydrodynamic cavitation device  by 25%, the volume of juice sediment decreases by 15.3 and 18, 6, respectively % The same dependence remains with the content of calcium salts in the juice of the second saturation. According to calcium salts are reduced by 28.2 and 46.2%.
The authors (
Purification is carried out after sampling under the action of gravitational forces in production conditions, ie the process of deposition (settling). The difference in the results is that the samples were taken at the existing sugar factory directly in the production conditions in the stream, so the possibility of their variation depends on the technological parameters, which may vary slightly.
From comparisons of the technological indicators of juices, it can be concluded that upon the collapse of steam bubbles in vapor condensation and hydrodynamic cavitation devices, structural transformations of noncurved diffusion juice occur. This means that during the collapse of bubbles in vapor condensation and hydrodynamic cavitation devices, similar effects occur that positively affect the efficiency of juice purification. However, the indicators of juices processed in a hydrodynamic cavitation device are somewhat better than in the vapor condensation one. This indicates, in our opinion, that the distribution of bubbles in the hydrodynamic cavitation device is more uniform than in the vapor condensation one due to the fact that the flow velocity in the hydrodynamic cavitation device is higher, and, as a consequence, the flow turbulence is higher. It is established that the cavitation treatment of diffusion juice before liming causes a significantly (
The proposed purification scheme allows compared to the typical scheme to reduce the content of lime milk for the second saturation by 0.018% CaO (almost 2 times), accelerate the process of separating the solid phase from the liquid (settling), as evidenced by the volume of juice and sedimentation rate. are better by 3.4 and 2.5%, respectively, and increase the purity of the juice by 0.7 units. And this will increase the yield of sugar.