No. You cannot see who voted your post, and besides looking through your list of answers and looking for an upvote you don't remember, there isn't really any way to know what post it was either. But honestly if you are doing that then you care too much :P
Just accept that you got an upvote; you might not have received it on a post you see as "upvote-worthy", but just think that someone else might have seen it as worthy for whatever reason. They found your post good/helpful/interesting and voted it.
This is something you should be appreciative of, not something you should be questioning ;)