In the example of Corsola and Mareanie
If Corsola calls a Mareanie, and then you, the player, kills the Corsola, it becomes impossible for the Mareanie to call anything at all. This goes for all examples of a Pokemon calling a species that is different than itself, with the single exception if Dragonair, who is necessary to making a Dragonite show up via Sos chain.
For example, Mareanie are known to eat Corsola branches. If a Corsola calls a Mareanie, the Mareanie will attack the Corsola. If the Corsola faints, the Mareanie will not call for new allies, which will break the chain.