CN103018627B  Adaptive fault type fault line detection method for noneffectively earthed system  Google Patents
Adaptive fault type fault line detection method for noneffectively earthed system Download PDFInfo
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 CN103018627B CN103018627B CN201210422542.9A CN201210422542A CN103018627B CN 103018627 B CN103018627 B CN 103018627B CN 201210422542 A CN201210422542 A CN 201210422542A CN 103018627 B CN103018627 B CN 103018627B
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Abstract
The invention discloses an adaptive transient characteristic fault line detection algorithm for a noneffectively earthed system by utilizing wavelet packet frequency division characteristics. The method comprises the following steps of: (1) monitoring a waveform of a bus zero sequence voltage, and when an instantaneous value of the bus zero sequence voltage exceeds a setting value, starting a fault line detection device and recording, and acquiring transient zero sequence current of each line; (2) calculating the selected frequency band of the system according to the grid structure and line parameters of a power distribution network; (3) decomposing and reconstructing the zero sequence current of the line by employing a wavelet packet, and taking three lines with the highest zero sequence current envelope line area as alternative fault lines; (4) calculating a scaling factor r and a transient factor h, and judging the earthing fault generation type; and (5) calculating a first amplitude value comparison criterion and a second polarity comparison criterion according to the earthing fault type, introducing a third criterion when the two criterion results are inconsistent, and selecting the earthing line. The method is accurate in line selection, and the earth line selection reliability of the power distribution network can be improved.
Description
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of noneffectively earthed system fault type selection method, particularly a kind of noneffectively earthed system fault type adaptive earthing selection method.
Background technology
At present, the neutral point of China 6 ~ 35kV low and medium voltage distribution network extensively adopt earthfree with through these two kinds of noneffective earthing modes of grounding through arc (also claiming resonance grounding), be called noneffectively earthed system
^{[1]}.Noneffectively earthed system, when there is singlephase earth fault, does not form shortcircuit loop, and only produce very little zerosequence current in system, the line voltage between threephase remains unchanged substantially, does not affect the power supply to load, therefore need not trip immediately.China's electric power regulations stipulate noneffectively earthed system can be with singlephase earth fault to continue operation 1 ~ 2h
^{[4]}, thus the impact interrupted suddenly user of avoiding powering, therefore the raising day by day required power supply reliability along with user, the application of noneffective earthing mode is increasingly extensive.Although do not affect the normal operation of electrical network during noneffectively earthed system generation singlephase earth fault, but singlephase earth fault will make healthy phases voltagetoground raise, operate with failure the insulation at destructible system weakness place for a long time, thus initiation line to line fault, even threephase shortcircuit, if there is arc grounding also may cause systemwide superpotential, threaten the safe operation of system.Therefore, after generation singlephase earth fault, need to select faulty line accurately as early as possible, and take measures in time to be processed.
For looking up the fault circuit, classic method to be operated a switch failure judgement circuit by artificial circuit one by one, and when faulty line is disconnected, earth fault instruction will disappear, thus also just determine faulty line.The method not only needs time and the manpower of at substantial, and needs the power supply of short interruptions nonfault line, reduces the reliability of power supply, causes unnecessary economic loss to society.In addition, the disconnection of artificial open line method route selection process breaker in middle and closedly not only to impact electrical network, and easily produce switching overvoltage and resonance overvoltage, switching manipulation more inevitably will reduce switch serviceable life frequently, greatly increase the burden of the unattended substation equipment needing remote control to operate.Therefore, for improving the automatization level of failure line selection, lot of domestic and foreign scholar, for route selection problem, proposes multiple selection method, and is successively proposed several generations line selection apparatus according to different route selection is theoretical, but practical application effect is unsatisfactory
^{[56]}, so that part field personnel abandon using line selection apparatus, still adopt traditional artificial open line method to carry out looking up the fault circuit.
In resonant earthed system, earth fault reason is various, and transient state process is complicated, and due to the compensating action of arc suppression coil, transient fault electric current is faint is even less than stable fault currents, and these reasons all cause the route selection difficulty of resonant earthed system.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art part, a kind of noneffectively earthed system fault type adaptive earthing selection method improving noneffectively earthed system failure line selection accuracy and faulttolerant ability is provided.
A kind of noneffectively earthed system fault type adaptive earthing selection method, its method is as follows: (1) (1) monitoring bus residual voltage waveform, when bus residual voltage instantaneous value is more than 0.15U
_{n}time, wherein U
_{n}for bus rated voltage, the waveform of bus residual voltage and each bar outlet transient zerosequence current cycle after startup separator line selection apparatus record trouble occur, sample frequency is set to 10kHz;
(2) determine the scope of selected frequency band: in noneffectively earthed system, angle of impedance becomes positive procedural representation generation series resonance from negative, by just changing to negative procedural representation generation parallel resonance,
In isolated neutral system, all frequency minima that series resonance occurs in circuit first that perfects are designated as f
_{m}, then the selected frequency band of isolated neutral system is [0, f
_{m}],
The longlyest in resonant earthed system perfect the frequency that parallel resonance occurs circuit first and be designated as f
_{bM}, all minimum frequencies that series resonance occurs in circuit first that perfects are designated as f
_{m}, then the selected frequency band of resonant earthed system is [f
_{bM}, f
_{m}],
Noneffectively earthed system is in selected frequency band range: during circuit generation singlephase earth fault, faulty line and to perfect circuit transient zerosequence current polarity contrary, faulty line zerosequence current by line flows to bus, perfect circuit zerosequence current and flow to circuit by bus, faulty line zerosequence current amplitude equals all and perfects circuit amplitude sum; When bus generation singlephase earth fault, all circuit zerosequence currents all flow to circuit by bus, and polarity is identical;
(3) utilize wavelet packet to carry out decomposed and reconstitutedly carrying out decomposed and reconstituted to circuit zerosequence current to circuit zerosequence current, selecting the maximum circuit of more than three of zerosequence current envelope area is the alternative circuit of fault;
(4) fault type is determined: the proportional factor r of low frequency component and high fdrequency component reflects the principal ingredient of circuit transient zerosequence current, if there is certain circuit r<1, namely cross near peak value in phase voltage and low resistance grounding fault occurs, no matter now whether the r of all the other circuits is less than 1, all think that the principal ingredient of system zerosequence current is high fdrequency component, when all circuits all have r >=1, think that the principal ingredient of system zerosequence current is low frequency component, transient state factor h reflects transition resistance size, use for reference the definition of voltage dip, as h<0.9, represent through large resistance eutral grounding fault, when h >=0.9, represent the low resistance grounding fault of phase voltage near zerocrossing point,
(5) amplitude com parison criterion one and Polarity comparision criterion two is calculated according to earth fault type, the 3rd criterion is introduced when two criterion results are inconsistent, select faulty line, in noneffectively earthed system, the feature band of circuit is decided to be the maximum frequency band of this circuit energy, and the feature band that the feature band of system is decided to be the circuit that energy is maximum in the feature band of each circuit comprised in system is the feature band of system;
(5.1) only adopt the proportional factor r of low frequency component and high fdrequency component to classify to fault type in isolated neutral system failure line selection criterion, its failure criterion is as follows:
First criterion is amplitude com parison, be equivalent to energy comparison, calculate three alternative circuits energy separately one by one, whether the energy detecting the wherein maximum circuit of energy is again greater than all the other two circuit energy sums, if be greater than, then this criterion selects the maximum circuit of energy to be faulty line, otherwise is judged as busbar fault;
Second Criterion is Polarity comparision, and choosing the maximum circuit of energy in the first criterion is reference line, and with reference to circuit and all the other two circuits, the wavelet reconstruction signal in feature band carries out Polarity comparision, and Polarity comparision formula is as follows:
In formula, I
_{0km}for kth article alternative line characteristics frequency band reconstruction signal is at the characteristic component of m sampled point; N is total sampling number, I
_{0im}for reference line feature band reconstruction signal is at the characteristic component of m sampled point;
If all p
_{ki}<0, represents this reference line fault; If all p
_{ki}>0, represents busbar fault; If be only less than 0 with wherein a certain routine calculation result, represent this line fault;
For choosing of system features frequency band, as r<1, the feature band of system is rejecting lowfrequency band, energy maximum band striked in selected frequency band range.When r >=1, the feature band of system is the lowfrequency band comprising 0 ~ 50Hz;
3rd criterion is assistant criteria, only when the route selection conclusion of the first criterion and the route selection conclusion of Second Criterion inconsistent time just enable, the now same Second Criterion of Polarity comparision method, but need feature band be revised, as r<1, the feature band of system is that next yardstick rejects lowfrequency band energy maximum band striked in selected frequency band range, and when r >=1, the feature band of system is the lowfrequency band of next yardstick 0 ~ 50Hz;
(5.2) adopt the proportional factor r of low frequency component and high fdrequency component and transient state factor h to classify to fault type in resonant earthed system failure line selection criterion, its failure criterion is as follows simultaneously:
First criterion is amplitude com parison.R<1 or r >=1 and h<0.9 time judge whether the energy of the maximum circuit of energy in alternative circuit is greater than all the other circuit energy sums, if set up, then the maximum circuit of energy is selected to be faulty line, otherwise judgement busbar fault, r >=1 and h >=0.9 time judge whether the energy of the maximum circuit of DC component energy in alternative circuit is greater than all the other alternative circuit DC component energy sums, if set up, then judge that this circuit is faulty line, otherwise judge busbar fault;
Second Criterion is Polarity comparision, r<1 or r >=1 and h >=0.9 time to choose the maximum circuit of energy in the first criterion be reference line, the reconstruction signal of reference line on feature band and the reconstruction signal of all the other circuits on feature band carry out Polarity comparision, Polarity comparision formula is identical with (5.1) with faulty line defining method
R >=1 and h<0.9 time, because transient zerosequence current amplitude is less, between fractional value, carry out Polarity comparision, the nargin of acquired results accuracy is not high, therefore zerosequence current and the larger residual voltage of amplitude are carried out Polarity comparision, and formula is:
In formula, U
_{0m}for the lowfrequency reconfiguration signal of residual voltage is at the characteristic component of m sampled point; If certain circuit p
_{k}<0, represents this line fault; If all p
_{k}>0, represents busbar fault;
Feature band is chosen from transient zerosequence current fundamental component, and during r<1, system features frequency band is and meets choosing
Determine the frequency band that the energy of band requirement is maximum, during r >=1, select the lowfrequency band comprising 0 ~ 50Hz;
Although the selected frequency band of resonant earthed system is not substantially containing lowfrequency band, but from first halfwave principle, after fault in a period of time, the residual voltage of faulty line and the relation of zerosequence current polarity are with to perfect circuit contrary, this relationship duration depends primarily on main resonatnt frequency and fault initial phase angle, when main resonatnt frequency is lower or voltage over zero time, the duration is longer, be easy to the signal adopting satisfied first halfwave principle, therefore select lowfrequency band to be that feature band can ensure route selection reliability.
3rd criterion is assistant criteria, when the route selection conclusion of the first criterion and the route selection conclusion of Second Criterion inconsistent time enable, the now same Second Criterion of Polarity comparision method, but need feature band be revised, during r<1, feature band is that next yardstick meets the maximum frequency band of the energy of selected band requirement, and during r >=1, feature band is current scale meets the maximum frequency band of the energy of selected band requirement.
The determination of selected frequency band is specially:
Along with the fast development of urban construction, current 10kV urban power distribution network is no longer only made up of simple uniform transmission circuit, but have employed the grid structure of overhead transmission line, cable line and cableaerial line mixing in a large number.Overhead transmission line, cable line input impedance are:
In formula,
for line characteristic impedance;
for line propagation coefficient; ω is angular frequency.
Be cable for bus outlet, after turn the cableaerial seriesparallel connection circuit of overhead transmission line, line input impedance is:
In formula, subscript 1,2 represent cable line and overhead transmission line, other parameter cotypes (1) respectively.
Be overhead transmission line for bus outlet, after turn cable built on stiltscable seriesparallel connection circuit, line input impedance is:
In formula, parameter is identical with formula (2).
In noneffectively earthed system, angle of impedance becomes positive procedural representation generation series resonance, by just changing to negative procedural representation generation parallel resonance from negative.In isolated neutral system, the impedance perfecting the detection of wireline inspection point is circuit self equiva lent impedance, and the admittance that faulty line detects is all shunt admittances perfecting circuit, namely
ω=2 π f is substituted into formula (1) ~ (4), obtains in isolated neutral system that each line impedance angle is with the phasefrequency characteristic curve of frequency change, defining all frequency minima that series resonance occurs in circuit first that perfects is f
_{m}, then the selected frequency band of isolated neutral system is [0, f
_{m}].
In resonant earthed system, the impedance perfecting the detection of wireline inspection point is also circuit self equiva lent impedance, and the admittance that faulty line detects is all shunt admittances perfecting circuit and arc suppression coil, namely
ω=2 π f is substituted into formula (1) ~ (3) and formula (5), to obtain in resonant earthed system each line impedance angle with the phasefrequency characteristic curve of frequency change, the longest in definition resonant earthed system to perfect the frequency that parallel resonance occurs circuit be first f
_{bM}, all minimum frequencies that series resonance occurs in circuit first that perfects remember f
_{m}, then the selected frequency band of resonant earthed system is [f
_{bM}, f
_{m}].
The expression of proportional factor r is: the proportional factor r of low frequency component and high fdrequency component reflects the principal ingredient of circuit transient zerosequence current,
In formula, x
_{l}n () is for comprising the low frequency component of 0 ~ 50Hz in transient zerosequence current; x
_{h}n () is for removing x
_{l}(n) high fdrequency component outward; E
_{l}and E
_{h}be respectively x
_{l}(n) and x
_{h}the energy of the WAVELET PACKET DECOMPOSITION subband contained by (n) and.
Each subband energy and can square to obtain directly by the reconstruction coefficients after the reconstruct of its single node after WAVELET PACKET DECOMPOSITION, namely
In formula, E
_{jk}for the energy of WAVELET PACKET DECOMPOSITION [j, k] subband;
for the reconstruction coefficients after the reconstruct of [j, k] subband single node; N is that signal sampling is counted.
Transient state factor h reflects transition resistance size, according to residual voltage characteristic Design during large resistance eutral grounding fault is:
In formula, s
_{1}, s
_{2}to be respectively after fault area and the area in later half cycle of semiperiod before in transient zerosequence voltage regulation 1 cycle; u
_{0.i}for the sampled value of residual voltage; Δ T is the sampling period of system; N is the sampling number in transient voltage one cycle.
In sum, the present invention's following advantage compared to existing technology:
(1) computing method that noneffectively earthed system selectes frequency band are given.Point out in selected frequency band range, during circuit generation singlephase earth fault, faulty line zerosequence current and to perfect circuit zero sequence current polarity contrary, faulty line zerosequence current amplitude equals all and perfects circuit zero sequence current amplitude sum, during bus generation singlephase earth fault, all circuit zerosequence currents all flow to circuit by bus, and polarity is identical.Transient state timefrequency characteristics after comprehensive utilization noneffectively earthed system singlephase earth fault, selects feature band adaptively, ensure that the reliability of failure line selection.
(2) the frequency division characteristic utilizing wavelet packet good, decomposes failure message, reconstructs.Spectral aliasing in elimination wavelet decomposition, restructuring procedure and the problem of frequency band entanglement, extract the failure message of failure message in feature band.
(3) consider the fault condition of resonant earthed system complexity, introducing low frequency component and high fdrequency component calculate proportional factor r and transient state factor h, classify to fault.
(4) be zerosequence current fundamental component for low frequency component under some fault condition, but do not belong to the inconsistency of frequency band in selected frequency band range, propose a solution by analysis: foundation " first halfwave " principle determination lowfrequency band is the feature band of Second Criterion, and to meet the feature band that the energy maximum band selecting band requirement is followup criterion, merge multiple criterion and carry out route selection.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is isolated neutral system selfadaption route selection process flow diagram.
Fig. 2 is resonant earthed system selfadaption route selection process flow diagram.
Fig. 3 is noneffectively earthed system realistic model.
Fig. 4 is the reconstruction signal of alternative circuit zerosequence current on feature band under isolated neutral system phase voltage crosses the low resistance grounding fault of peak value.
Fig. 5 is the reconstruction signal of alternative circuit zerosequence current in lowfrequency band under the low resistance grounding fault of isolated neutral system phase voltage zero crossing.
Fig. 6 is the reconstruction signal of alternative circuit zerosequence current in lowfrequency band under the low resistance grounding fault of resonant earthed system phase voltage zero crossing.
Fig. 7 is that resonant earthed system phase voltage crosses the reconstruction signal of alternative circuit zerosequence current in lowfrequency band under the large resistance eutral grounding fault of peak value.
Fig. 8 is the reconstruction signal of alternative circuit zerosequence current on feature band 7 under resonant earthed system busbar fault (decomposition scale of wavelet packet is 6).
Fig. 9 is the reconstruction signal of alternative circuit zerosequence current on feature band 14 under resonant earthed system busbar fault (decomposition scale of wavelet packet is 6).
Figure 10 is the reconstruction signal of alternative circuit zerosequence current on feature band 16 under resonant earthed system busbar fault (decomposition scale of wavelet packet is 7).
Figure 11 is the reconstruction signal of alternative circuit zerosequence current on feature band 17 under resonant earthed system busbar fault (decomposition scale of wavelet packet is 7).
Figure 12 is the reconstruction signal of alternative circuit zerosequence current on feature band 35 under resonant earthed system busbar fault (decomposition scale of wavelet packet is 7).
Figure 13 is the reconstruction signal of alternative circuit zerosequence current on feature band 1 under the intermittent arc fault of resonant earthed system.
Figure 14 is the reconstruction signal of alternative circuit zerosequence current on feature band 3 under the intermittent arc fault of resonant earthed system.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment, the present invention is described in more detail.
Embodiment 1
Noneffectively earthed system fault type adaptive earthing selection method of the present invention:
(1) bus residual voltage waveform is monitored, when bus residual voltage instantaneous value is more than 0.15U
_{n}time, the waveform of bus residual voltage and each bar outlet transient zerosequence current cycle after startup separator line selection apparatus record trouble occur, sample frequency is set to 10kHz.Wherein U
_{n}for bus rated voltage.
(2) according to grid structure and the line parameter circuit value of noneffectively earthed system, the selected frequency band of computing system.
Along with the fast development of urban construction, current 10kV urban power distribution network is no longer only made up of simple uniform transmission circuit, but have employed the grid structure of overhead transmission line, cable line and cableaerial line mixing in a large number.Overhead transmission line, cable line input impedance are:
In formula,
for line characteristic impedance;
for line propagation coefficient; ω is angular frequency.
Be cable for bus outlet, after turn the cableaerial seriesparallel connection circuit of overhead transmission line, line input impedance is:
In formula, subscript 1,2 represent cable line and overhead transmission line, other parameter cotypes (1) respectively.
Be overhead transmission line for bus outlet, after turn cable built on stiltscable seriesparallel connection circuit, line input impedance is:
In formula, parameter is identical with formula (2).
In noneffectively earthed system, angle of impedance becomes positive procedural representation generation series resonance, by just changing to negative procedural representation generation parallel resonance from negative.In isolated neutral system, the impedance perfecting the detection of wireline inspection point is circuit self equiva lent impedance, and the admittance that faulty line detects is all shunt admittances perfecting circuit, namely
ω=2 π f is substituted into formula (1) ~ (4), obtains in isolated neutral system that each line impedance angle is with the phasefrequency characteristic curve of frequency change, defining all frequency minima that series resonance occurs in circuit first that perfects is f
_{m}, then the selected frequency band of isolated neutral system is [0, f
_{m}].
In resonant earthed system, the impedance perfecting the detection of wireline inspection point is also circuit self equiva lent impedance, and the admittance that faulty line detects is all shunt admittances perfecting circuit and arc suppression coil, namely
ω=2 π f is substituted into formula (1) ~ (3) and formula (5), to obtain in resonant earthed system each line impedance angle with the phasefrequency characteristic curve of frequency change, the longest in definition resonant earthed system to perfect the frequency that parallel resonance occurs circuit be first f
_{bM}, all minimum frequencies that series resonance occurs in circuit first that perfects remember f
_{m}, then the selected frequency band of resonant earthed system is [f
_{bM}, f
_{m}].
Noneffectively earthed system is in selected frequency band range: during circuit generation singlephase earth fault, faulty line and to perfect circuit transient zerosequence current polarity contrary, faulty line zerosequence current by line flows to bus, perfect circuit zerosequence current and flow to circuit by bus, faulty line zerosequence current amplitude equals all and perfects circuit amplitude sum; When bus generation singlephase earth fault, all circuit zerosequence currents all flow to circuit by bus, and polarity is identical.
(3) use wavelet packet to carry out decomposed and reconstituted to circuit zerosequence current, selecting the maximum threeline of zerosequence current envelope area is the alternative circuit of fault.
Before route selection, WAVELET PACKET DECOMPOSITION and reconstruct need be carried out to the fault transient signals of sampling.The decomposition and reconstruction process of wavelet packet fast algorithm makes algorithm there is aliasing and frequency band entanglement.For wavelet aliasing phenomenon, because wavelet packet only need keep the relative phase between electric current constant in the application of failure line selection, namely can not there is substantive deterioration in route selection, therefore selects the good wavelet function coiflet4 of performance just can engineering demands.
For WAVELET PACKET DECOMPOSITION yardstick Sum decomposition object, theory calculate and emulation experiment show: for the decomposition of zerosequence current, when faulty line can be determined without the need to the 3rd criterion, 6 layers need be decomposed, need decomposition scale during introducing the 3rd criterion will be explained in greater detail below.Residual voltage only needs to decompose under large resistance eutral grounding failure condition, and Decomposition order is equal with zerosequence current.
For the system comprising many feeder lines, for reducing data processing amount, improving the speed of route selection, simple preservice can be carried out to the sampling zerosequence current of every bar circuit.According to the principle of faulty line amplitude maximum, and consider that the onthespot noise etc. existed may have influence on sampled result, 3 circuits (being no less than 3) selecting sampling zerosequence current envelope area maximum are as the alternative circuit of fault, and faulty line must be included in this threeline.
(4) calculate proportional factor r and transient state factor h, judge earth fault occurrence type.
Noneffectively earthed system singlephase earth fault occurrence condition is complicated, introduces and calculates proportional factor r and transient state factor h, difference earth fault occurrence type.
The proportional factor r of low frequency component and high fdrequency component reflects the principal ingredient of circuit transient zerosequence current, and expression formula is:
In formula, x
_{l}n () is for comprising the low frequency component of 0 ~ 50Hz in transient zerosequence current; x
_{h}n () is for removing x
_{l}(n) high fdrequency component outward; E
_{l}and E
_{h}be respectively x
_{l}(n) and x
_{h}the energy of the WAVELET PACKET DECOMPOSITION subband contained by (n) and.
After WAVELET PACKET DECOMPOSITION each frequency band energy can directly be reconstructed by its single node after square the obtaining of reconstruction coefficients, namely
In formula, E
_{jk}for the energy of WAVELET PACKET DECOMPOSITION [j, k] subband;
for the reconstruction coefficients after the reconstruct of [j, k] subband single node; N is that signal sampling is counted.
If there is certain circuit r<1, namely crosses near peak value in phase voltage and low resistance grounding fault occurs, no matter now whether the r of all the other circuits is less than 1, all think that the principal ingredient of system zerosequence current is high fdrequency component.When all circuits all have r >=1, think that the principal ingredient of system zerosequence current is low frequency component.
Transient state factor h reflects transition resistance size, according to residual voltage characteristic Design during large resistance eutral grounding fault is:
In formula, s
_{1}, s
_{2}to be respectively after fault area and the area in later half cycle of semiperiod before in transient zerosequence voltage regulation 1 cycle; u
_{0.i}for the sampled value of residual voltage; Δ T is the sampling period of system; N is the sampling number in transient voltage one cycle.
Use for reference the definition of voltage dip, represent generation voltage dip when voltage drop 10%, getting h is 0.9.As h<0.9, represent through large resistance eutral grounding fault.When h >=0.9, represent the low resistance grounding fault of phase voltage near zerocrossing point.
(5) calculate amplitude com parison criterion one and Polarity comparision criterion two according to earth fault type, introduce the 3rd criterion when two criterion results are inconsistent, select faulty line.
In noneffectively earthed system, the feature band of circuit is decided to be the maximum frequency band of this circuit energy, but asks in process at system features frequency band the situation that several line characteristics frequency bands are inconsistent that may occur, namely occurs multiple feature band.Now should the size of more each line characteristics frequency band energy, be systemwide feature band with the feature band of the maximum circuit of feature band energy.
1) only adopt the proportional factor r of low frequency component and high fdrequency component to classify to fault type in isolated neutral system failure line selection criterion, its failure criterion is as follows:
First criterion is amplitude com parison, is equivalent to energy comparison.Calculate the E of three alternative circuits one by one
_{l}and E
_{h}sum, i.e. whether three alternative circuits energy separately, then the energy detecting the maximum circuit of wherein energy is greater than all the other two circuit energy sums, if be greater than, then this criterion selects the maximum circuit of energy to be faulty line, otherwise is judged as busbar fault.
Second Criterion is Polarity comparision.Choosing the maximum circuit of energy in the first criterion is reference line (being assumed to be circuit i), and with reference to circuit and all the other two circuits, the wavelet reconstruction signal in feature band carries out Polarity comparision, and Polarity comparision formula is as follows:
In formula, I
_{0km}for kth article alternative line characteristics frequency band reconstruction signal is at the characteristic component of m sampled point; N is total sampling number, I
_{0im}for reference line feature band reconstruction signal is at the characteristic component of m sampled point.
If all p
_{ki}<0, represents this reference line fault; If all p
_{ki}>0, represents busbar fault; If be only less than 0 with wherein a certain routine calculation result, represent this line fault.
For choosing of system features frequency band, as r<1, the feature band of system is rejecting lowfrequency band, energy maximum band striked in selected frequency band range.When r >=1, the feature band of system is the lowfrequency band comprising 0 ~ 50Hz.
3rd criterion is assistant criteria, only when the route selection conclusion of the first criterion and the route selection conclusion of Second Criterion inconsistent time just enable.The now same Second Criterion of Polarity comparision method, but need feature band be revised.As r<1, the feature band of system is that next yardstick rejects lowfrequency band energy maximum band striked in selected frequency band range.When r >=1, the feature band of system is the lowfrequency band of next yardstick 0 ~ 50Hz.
2) adopt the proportional factor r of low frequency component and high fdrequency component and transient state factor h to classify to fault type in resonant earthed system failure line selection criterion, its failure criterion is as follows simultaneously:
First criterion is amplitude com parison.R<1 or r >=1 and h<0.9 time judge whether the energy of the maximum circuit of energy in alternative circuit is greater than all the other circuit energy sums, if set up, then select energy maximum circuit to be faulty line, otherwise judge busbar fault.R >=1 and h >=0.9 time judge whether the energy of the maximum circuit of DC component energy in alternative circuit is greater than all the other alternative circuit DC component energy sums, if set up, then judge that this circuit is faulty line, otherwise judge busbar fault.
Second Criterion is Polarity comparision.R<1 or r >=1 and h >=0.9 time to choose the maximum circuit of energy in the first criterion be reference line (being assumed to be circuit i), the reconstruction signal of reference line on feature band and the reconstruction signal of all the other circuits on feature band carry out Polarity comparision, Polarity comparision formula is identical with formula (9) with faulty line defining method
R >=1 and h<0.9 time, because transient zerosequence current amplitude is less, between fractional value, carry out Polarity comparision, the nargin of acquired results accuracy is not high, therefore zerosequence current and the larger residual voltage of amplitude are carried out Polarity comparision, and formula is:
In formula, U
_{0m}for the lowfrequency reconfiguration signal of residual voltage is at the characteristic component of m sampled point; All the other parameter cotypes (8).
If certain circuit p
_{k}<0, represents this line fault; If all p
_{k}>0, represents busbar fault.
Feature band is chosen from transient zerosequence current fundamental component.During r<1, system features frequency band is the maximum frequency band of the energy that meets selected band requirement.During r >=1, select the lowfrequency band comprising 0 ~ 50Hz.Although the selected frequency band of resonant earthed system is not substantially containing lowfrequency band, but from first halfwave principle, after fault in a period of time, the residual voltage of faulty line and the relation of zerosequence current polarity are with to perfect circuit contrary, this relationship duration depends primarily on main resonatnt frequency and fault initial phase angle, when main resonatnt frequency is lower or voltage over zero time, the duration is longer, be easy to the signal adopting satisfied first halfwave principle, therefore select lowfrequency band to be that feature band can ensure route selection reliability.
3rd criterion is assistant criteria, when the route selection conclusion of the first criterion and the route selection conclusion of Second Criterion inconsistent time enable.The now same Second Criterion of Polarity comparision method, but need feature band be revised.During r<1, feature band is that next yardstick meets the maximum frequency band of the energy of selected band requirement.During r >=1, feature band is current scale meets the maximum frequency band of the energy of selected band requirement.
Utilize the PSB tool box of MATLAB to build the realistic model of noneffectively earthed system as shown in Figure 3, removing arc suppression coil is isolated neutral system, otherwise is resonant earthed system.Wherein circuit 1 and 4 is cable line, and length is respectively 6km and 7km; Circuit 2 is the overhead transmission line of long 22km; Circuit 3 is cableaerial seriesparallel connection circuit, the long 1km of cable line, the long 15km of overhead transmission line.Overhead transmission line Zero sequence parameter is: R
_{0}=0.23 Ω/km, C
_{0}=0.008 μ F/km, L
_{0}=5.478mH/km; Zero in cable order parameter is: R
_{0}=2.7 Ω/km, C
_{0}=0.028 μ F/km, L
_{0}=1.019mH/km; The positive order parameter of overhead transmission line is: R
_{1}=0.17 Ω/km, C
_{1}=0.00969 μ F/km, L
_{1}=1.21mH/km; The positive order parameter of cable is: R
_{1}=0.27 Ω/km, C
_{1}=0.0339 μ F/km, L
_{1}=0.255mH/km.Maintransformer adopts the parameter of SZ1031500/110 model, compensativity 5%.
Adopt the selection method proposed to carry out route selection to the singlephase earth fault in different faults situation, as space is limited, only enumerate part typical fault situation.
(1) isolated neutral system phase voltage crosses the low resistance grounding fault of peak value
When t=0.015s and phase voltage cross peak value, there is singlephase earth fault apart from bus 1km place in circuit 4, transition resistance is 20 Ω.Through preservice, maximum 3 circuits of envelope area are circuit 4,1 and 3, are defined as the alternative circuit of fault, carry out the WAVELET PACKET DECOMPOSITION of 6 layers respectively.Elimination frequency band interlocks after phenomenon, lowfrequency range is weeded out in selected frequency band range, according to the maximum principle of energy, calculates all alternative line characteristics frequency bands are the 7th frequency band, is decided to be system features frequency band.The reconstruction signal of the alternative circuit zerosequence current of fault on feature band as shown in Figure 4.
The energy being obtained circuit 4,1,3 by the first criterion is respectively 31451,17062 and 3033.3; P is obtained by Second Criterion
_{14}=4248.2, p
_{34}=1157.4, judge circuit 4 fault.
(2) the low resistance grounding fault of isolated neutral system phase voltage zero crossing
When t=0.01s and phase voltage zero crossing, there is singlephase earth fault apart from bus 1km place in circuit 4, transition resistance is 20 Ω.The low frequency component of selective system zerosequence current is as the feature band of Second Criterion, and the reconstruction signal of the alternative circuit zerosequence current of fault in lowfrequency band as shown in Figure 5.
The energy being obtained circuit 4,1,3 by the first criterion is respectively 2697.2,1494.7 and 85.882; P is obtained by Second Criterion
_{14}=1693.5, p
_{34}=406.99, judge circuit 4 fault.
(3) the low resistance grounding fault of resonant earthed system phase voltage zero crossing
When t=0.01s and phase voltage zero crossing, there is singlephase earth fault apart from bus 1km place in circuit 4, transition resistance is 20 Ω.The low frequency component of selective system zerosequence current is as the feature band of Second Criterion, and the reconstruction signal of the alternative circuit zerosequence current of fault in lowfrequency band as shown in Figure 6.
The DC component energy being obtained circuit 4,1,3 by the first criterion is respectively 3519.4,845.63 and 47.78; P is obtained by Second Criterion
_{14}=2186.7, p
_{34}=523.47.Judge circuit 4 fault.
(4) resonant earthed system phase voltage crosses the large resistance eutral grounding of peak value
During t=0.015s, there is singlephase earth fault apart from bus 1km place in circuit 4, transition resistance is 2000 Ω.Bus residual voltage and the reconstruction signal of the alternative circuit zerosequence current of fault in lowfrequency band are as shown in Figure 7.
The DC component energy being obtained circuit 4,1,3 by the first criterion is respectively 48.43,19.59 and 1.26; P is obtained by Second Criterion
_{4}=14692, p
_{1}=6590.6, p
_{3}=1542.Judge circuit 4 fault.
(5) resonant earthed system bus phase voltage crosses the low resistance grounding fault of peak value
During t=0.015s, bus generation singlephase earth fault, transition resistance is 20 Ω.High fdrequency component is the principal ingredient of zerosequence current, after rearranging staggered frequency band, according to the maximum principle of energy, in selected frequency band range, select energy maximum band as the alternative line characteristics frequency band of each fault, the feature band of circuit 1 and 4 is frequency band 7, and the feature band of circuit 3 is frequency band 14.The reconstruction signal of the alternative circuit zerosequence current of fault on frequency band 7 and 14 as shown in Figure 8,9.
The energy being obtained circuit 4,1,3 by the first criterion is respectively 18698,17049 and 796.1; P is obtained by Second Criterion
_{14}=4082.3, p
_{34}=778.81.Now need consideration the 3rd criterion.Determine that circuit 4,1 and 3 is on yardstick 7 and the feature band meeting selected frequency band range requirement is respectively frequency band 16,17 and 35.The reconstruction signal of fault alternative circuit zerosequence current on abovementioned frequency band as shown in figs. 1012.
P is obtained by the 3rd criterion
_{14}=5758.8, p
_{34}=1039.8.Judge busbar fault.
(6) resonant earthed system intermittent arc grounding fault
During t=0.015s, there is intermittent arc grounding fault apart from bus 1km place in circuit 4, the arcing moment is 0.015s, 0.035s, 0.055s respectively, and the blowout moment is 0.025s, 0.045s, 0.065s respectively, and transition resistance is 200 Ω.The feature band of circuit 4 is frequency band 3, and the feature band of circuit 1 and 3 is frequency band 1.The reconstruction signal of the alternative circuit zerosequence current of fault on frequency band 1 and 3 as illustrated in figs. 1314.
The energy being obtained circuit 4,1 and 3 by the first criterion is respectively 1884.7,921.66 and 58.965; P is obtained by Second Criterion
_{14}=147.8, p
_{34}=33.448.Judge circuit 4 fault.
It is same as the prior art that the present embodiment does not state part.
Claims (4)
1. a noneffectively earthed system fault type adaptive earthing selection method, its method is as follows, it is characterized in that: (1) monitoring bus residual voltage waveform, when bus residual voltage instantaneous value is more than 0.15U
_{n}time, wherein U
_{n}for bus rated voltage, the waveform of bus residual voltage and each bar outlet transient zerosequence current cycle after startup separator line selection apparatus record trouble occur, sample frequency is set to 10kHz;
(2) determine the scope of selected frequency band: in noneffectively earthed system, angle of impedance becomes positive procedural representation generation series resonance from negative, by just changing to negative procedural representation generation parallel resonance,
In isolated neutral system, all frequency minima that series resonance occurs in circuit first that perfects are designated as f
_{m}, then the selected frequency band of isolated neutral system is [0, f
_{m}],
The longlyest in resonant earthed system perfect the frequency that parallel resonance occurs circuit first and be designated as f
_{bM}, all minimum frequencies that series resonance occurs in circuit first that perfects are designated as f
_{m}, then the selected frequency band of resonant earthed system is [f
_{bM}, f
_{m}],
Noneffectively earthed system is in selected frequency band range: during circuit generation singlephase earth fault, faulty line and to perfect circuit transient zerosequence current polarity contrary, faulty line zerosequence current by line flows to bus, perfect circuit zerosequence current and flow to circuit by bus, faulty line zerosequence current amplitude equals all and perfects circuit amplitude sum; When bus generation singlephase earth fault, all circuit zerosequence currents all flow to circuit by bus, and polarity is identical;
(3) utilize wavelet packet to carry out decomposed and reconstituted to circuit zerosequence current, selecting the maximum circuit of more than three of zerosequence current envelope area is the alternative circuit of fault;
(4) fault type is determined: the proportional factor r of low frequency component and high fdrequency component reflects the principal ingredient of circuit transient zerosequence current, if there is certain circuit r<1, namely cross near peak value in phase voltage and low resistance grounding fault occurs, no matter now whether the r of all the other circuits is less than 1, all think that the principal ingredient of system zerosequence current is high fdrequency component, when all circuits all have r >=1, think that the principal ingredient of system zerosequence current is low frequency component, transient state factor h reflects transition resistance size, use for reference the definition of voltage dip, as h < 0.9, represent through large resistance eutral grounding fault, when h >=0.9, represent the low resistance grounding fault of phase voltage near zerocrossing point,
(5) amplitude com parison criterion one and Polarity comparision criterion two is calculated according to earth fault type, the 3rd criterion is introduced when two criterion results are inconsistent, select faulty line, in noneffectively earthed system, the feature band of circuit is decided to be the maximum frequency band of this circuit energy, and the feature band that the feature band of system is decided to be the circuit that energy is maximum in the feature band of each circuit comprised in system is the feature band of system;
(5.1) only adopt the proportional factor r of low frequency component and high fdrequency component to classify to fault type in isolated neutral system failure line selection criterion, its failure criterion is as follows:
First criterion is amplitude com parison, be equivalent to energy comparison, calculate three alternative circuits energy separately one by one, whether the energy detecting the wherein maximum circuit of energy is again greater than all the other two circuit energy sums, if be greater than, then this criterion selects the maximum circuit of energy to be faulty line, otherwise is judged as busbar fault;
Second Criterion is Polarity comparision, and choosing the maximum circuit of energy in the first criterion is reference line, and with reference to circuit and all the other two circuits, the wavelet reconstruction signal in feature band carries out Polarity comparision, and Polarity comparision formula is as follows:
In formula, I
_{0km}for kth article alternative line characteristics frequency band reconstruction signal is at the characteristic component of m sampled point; N is total sampling number, I
_{0im}for reference line feature band reconstruction signal is at the characteristic component of m sampled point;
If all p
_{ki}< 0, represents this reference line fault; If all p
_{ki}> 0, represents busbar fault; If be only less than 0 with wherein a certain routine calculation result, represent this line fault;
For choosing of system features frequency band, as r < 1, the feature band of system is rejecting lowfrequency band, energy maximum band striked in selected frequency band range, and when r >=1, the feature band of system is the lowfrequency band comprising 0 ~ 50Hz;
3rd criterion is assistant criteria, only when the route selection conclusion of the first criterion and the route selection conclusion of Second Criterion inconsistent time just enable, the now same Second Criterion of Polarity comparision method, but need feature band be revised, as r < 1, the feature band of system is that next yardstick rejects lowfrequency band energy maximum band striked in selected frequency band range, and when r >=1, the feature band of system is the lowfrequency band of next yardstick 0 ~ 50Hz;
(5.2) adopt the proportional factor r of low frequency component and high fdrequency component and transient state factor h to classify to fault type in resonant earthed system failure line selection criterion, its failure criterion is as follows simultaneously:
First criterion is amplitude com parison, r < 1 or r >=1 and h < 0.9 time judge whether the energy of the maximum circuit of energy in alternative circuit is greater than all the other circuit energy sums, if set up, then the maximum circuit of energy is selected to be faulty line, otherwise judgement busbar fault, r >=1 and h >=0.9 time judge whether the energy of the maximum circuit of DC component energy in alternative circuit is greater than all the other alternative circuit DC component energy sums, if set up, then judge that this circuit is faulty line, otherwise judge busbar fault;
Second Criterion is Polarity comparision, r < 1 or r >=1 and h >=0.9 time to choose the maximum circuit of energy in the first criterion be reference line, the reconstruction signal of reference line on feature band and the reconstruction signal of all the other circuits on feature band carry out Polarity comparision, Polarity comparision formula is identical with (5.1) Second Criterion with faulty line defining method
R >=1 and h < 0.9 time, because transient zerosequence current amplitude is less, between fractional value, carry out Polarity comparision, the nargin of acquired results accuracy is not high, therefore zerosequence current and the larger residual voltage of amplitude are carried out Polarity comparision, and formula is:
In formula, U
_{0m}for the lowfrequency reconfiguration signal of residual voltage is at the characteristic component of m sampled point; If certain circuit p
_{k}< 0, represents this line fault; If all p
_{k}> 0, represents busbar fault;
Feature band is chosen from transient zerosequence current fundamental component, and during r < 1, system features frequency band is the maximum frequency band of the energy that meets selected band requirement, during r >=1, selects the lowfrequency band comprising 0 ~ 50Hz;
3rd criterion is assistant criteria, when the route selection conclusion of the first criterion and the route selection conclusion of Second Criterion inconsistent time enable, the now same Second Criterion of Polarity comparision method, but need feature band be revised, during r < 1, feature band is that next yardstick meets the maximum frequency band of the energy of selected band requirement, and during r >=1, feature band is current scale meets the maximum frequency band of the energy of selected band requirement.
2. noneffectively earthed system fault type adaptive earthing selection method according to claim 1, is characterized in that: being specifically defined as of selected frequency band:
Overhead transmission line, cable line input impedance be,
In formula,
${Z}_{c}=\sqrt{\frac{{R}_{0k}+\mathrm{j\ω}{L}_{0k}}{{\mathrm{j\ωC}}_{0k}}}$ For line characteristic impedance;
$\mathrm{\γ}=\sqrt{\mathrm{j\ω}{C}_{0k}({R}_{0k}+\mathrm{j\ω}{L}_{0k})}$ For line propagation coefficient; ω is angular frequency,
Be cable for bus outlet, after turn the cableaerial seriesparallel connection circuit of overhead transmission line, line input impedance is:
In formula, subscript 1,2 represent cable line and overhead transmission line respectively,
Be overhead transmission line for bus outlet, after turn cable built on stiltscable seriesparallel connection circuit, line input impedance is:
In noneffectively earthed system, angle of impedance becomes positive procedural representation generation series resonance from negative, by just changing to negative procedural representation generation parallel resonance, in isolated neutral system, the impedance perfecting the detection of wireline inspection point is circuit self equiva lent impedance, the admittance that faulty line detects is all shunt admittances perfecting circuit, namely
ω=2 π f is substituted into abovementioned formula, obtains in isolated neutral system that each line impedance angle is with the phasefrequency characteristic curve of frequency change, defining all frequency minima that series resonance occurs in circuit first that perfects is f
_{m}, then the selected frequency band of isolated neutral system is [0, f
_{m}],
In resonant earthed system, the impedance perfecting the detection of wireline inspection point is also circuit self equiva lent impedance, and the admittance that faulty line detects is all shunt admittances perfecting circuit and arc suppression coil, namely
ω=2 π f is substituted into formula, to obtain in resonant earthed system each line impedance angle with the phasefrequency characteristic curve of frequency change, the longest in definition resonant earthed system to perfect the frequency that parallel resonance occurs circuit be first f
_{bM}, all minimum frequencies that series resonance occurs in circuit first that perfects remember f
_{m}, then the selected frequency band of resonant earthed system is [f
_{bM}, f
_{m}].
3. noneffectively earthed system fault type adaptive earthing selection method according to claim 2, is characterized in that: the expression of proportional factor r is, the proportional factor r of low frequency component and high fdrequency component reflects the principal ingredient of circuit transient zerosequence current,
In formula, x
_{l}n () is for comprising the low frequency component of 0 ~ 50Hz in transient zerosequence current; x
_{h}n () is for removing x
_{l}(n) high fdrequency component outward; E
_{l}and E
_{h}be respectively x
_{l}(n) and x
_{h}the energy of the WAVELET PACKET DECOMPOSITION subband contained by (n) and,
Each subband energy and can square to obtain directly by the reconstruction coefficients after the reconstruct of its single node after WAVELET PACKET DECOMPOSITION, namely
In formula, E
_{jk}for the energy of WAVELET PACKET DECOMPOSITION [j, k] subband;
for the reconstruction coefficients after the reconstruct of [j, k] subband single node; N is that signal sampling is counted.
4. noneffectively earthed system fault type adaptive earthing selection method according to claim 3, it is characterized in that: the expression formula of transient state factor h is: transient state factor h reflects transition resistance size, according to residual voltage characteristic Design during large resistance eutral grounding fault is:
In formula, s
_{1}, s
_{2}to be respectively after fault area and the area in later half cycle of semiperiod before in transient zerosequence voltage regulation 1 cycle; u
_{0.i}for the sampled value of residual voltage; Δ T is the sampling period of system; N is the sampling number in transient voltage one cycle.
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