Team Rocket (Jessie and James) have never caught Meowth. They have had many arguments and Meowth was never withdrawn into a Pokeball. I don't recall Team Rocket ever mentioning Meowth having a Pokeball. Besides, if they caught Meowth, then Pikachu wouldn't have been able to put Meowth in a Pokeball.
Pikachu leaps onto another conveyor belt and throws a Luxury Ball at Meowth, which hits and calls him inside nearly capturing him. Meowth manages to escape, although he did enjoy the feeling of the Luxury Ball, then continues after Pikachu
If Meowth was caught, then that wouldn't have been able to happen. Also on the Pokemon they caught, it says Travels with, not Caught or on hand.
Source: This, this for Pokemon Team Rocket caught, and I watched a helluva lot of Pokemon Anime.